Rainwater Collecting System: An Overview

As the name suggests, the term water harvesting, by and large, alludes to the collection of rainstorm-created spillover from a specific region (a catchment) to give water to humans, animals, or agricultural and commercial use.

Harvesting rainwater Via Rainwater CatchmentTo reiterate, water harvesting is gathering the runoff from a design or other impenetrable surface to store for some time.

It is a strategy for water preservation by an assortment of water from the rooftop into a tank. It can then be utilized for various purposes.

Customarily, this includes harvesting the rain from a rooftop. The downpour will gather in drains that channel the water into downspouts and afterward into a capacity vessel.

If untreated, it tends to be utilized for watering the plants, washing the animals, and so on. Whenever treated appropriately, it tends to be used for homegrown purposes and, in any event, for drinking.

NOW, why is rainwater harvesting important? 

Due to the rising water demand, more and more people are interested in harvesting rainwater as it gives an elective wellspring of drinking and consumable water, can be utilized as water system water for the development of harvests, and decreases how much metropolitan stormwater runoff.

Water harvesting has various advantages for individuals, districts, and the world. Listed below are only a few instances of why harvesting water is advantageous. 

ONE, rainwater harvesting reduces local demand for water.

Generally, families get their water from a well or the city, yet both have limited measures of water, and the town has an entire populace to serve.

As soon as the drought occurs, water supply shortage becomes highly likely. Having some water reserves at home will decrease a portion of the stress on the city's inventory and give them somewhat more to work with.

NEXT, rainwater harvesting encourages sustainable water usage

One of the main advantages of water collecting is that it provides a self-economical water source.

While specific individuals use this framework as crisis reinforcement, it is their main wellspring of water for other people.

Due to a biological crisis where districts can't give water any longer, individuals who own these frameworks will be a portion of the few with a consumable water source.

Being off the matrix likewise implies that you won't ever have a water bill and will never be dependent upon city guidelines concerning watering your plants.

Conversely, you can add a programmed switchover valve that changes to another water supply whenever you like.

IN THIS ARTICLE, we will talk about rainwater harvesting, as well as the many ways to incorporate it at home.

Understanding Rainwater Harvesting: How Does It Work?

Process of harvesting rainwater system

BYJU (n.d.).

Rainwater harvesting systems gather and catch the water that runs off enormous surfaces, for example, rooftops, and store it in tanks that can be underground, like Raintraps and Aquabanks, or over-the-ground collecting tanks, similar to water butts in gardens or more giant tanks around ranch structures.

The cycle includes gathering and putting away water with the assistance of misleadingly planned frameworks that run off regular or artificial catchment regions.

These include roofs, compounds, rough surfaces, slope inclines, or artificially fixed impenetrable/semi-pervious land surfaces.

Water-harvesting systems consist of the following parts:

  • Catchment is used to gather and store the caught water.

  • The conveyance system ships the collected water from the catchment to the re-energized zone.

  • Flush is used to flush out the primary spell of rain.

  • A filter channel is utilized for separating the gathered water and eliminating contaminations.

  • Tanks and re-energized structures store the sifted water prepared for use.

A few elements assume a crucial part in how much water is collected.

Some of these variables are quantum of overflow, aspects of the catchments, natural effects, innovative accessibility, limit of capacity tanks, sorts of rooftop (i.e., slant, materials, etc.)., recurrence, amount, and the nature of the precipitation, the speed and ease with which the water enters through the earth to re-energize the groundwater.

Rainwater harvesting as an essential water supply is a groundbreaking thought and industry. In this manner, the regulations around water collecting can be a worry.

Currently, the central government doesn't direct water gathering by any stretch of the imagination but instead surrenders it to the singular state legislatures.

Out of the lower 48 states in the U.S., Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Illinois, and Arkansas are the leading states presently vigorously directed to hold property holders back from reaping and utilizing the downpour that falls on their property.

Be that as it may, in many states, rainwater harvesting is either not directed by any means or supported by the state government as a strategy for water protection, stormwater management, and water availability.

Case In Point: Rainwater is an asset. And when it falls on your property, it's yours to use. 

Planning And Designing A Rainwater Harvesting System

parts of the harvesting systemChaitanya. (2019).

The five primary parts of a rainwater harvesting system are (1) conveyance, (2) storage, (3) overflow, (4) outlet, and (5) delivery.

Moreover, a first flush diverter can be introduced to develop water quality further.

Before carrying out a water collecting framework, it is fundamental to comprehend and think about the capability of these parts and dive more deeply into nearby pipes, buildings, neighborhoods, and natural codes.

The restricting variables in most water-collecting applications are the space accessible for stockpiling, cost, and feel.

A few variables should be considered while introducing a framework, including contributing roof regions, precipitation designs, and expected utilization.


The conveyance system is an extravagant term for the drains and downspouts.

These are the organizations of lines that move the water from the rooftop surface to the capacity holders.

While choosing drains and downspouts, considering three variables: measuring, legitimate establishment, and esthetics is significant.

The most clear transport framework comprises drains associated with downspouts that convey the downpour into a nearby tank.

Be that as it may, it is seldom this clear. Different parts of the water reaping framework influence the transport framework's plan.

Rainwater Storage Tank

A vital part of rainwater harvesting is capacity. It is the main piece of the framework, gets the most notice (or least, is found in-ground), and is typically the most costly piece of an entire house water-reaping framework.

A Rainwater Harvesting Tank will be introduced to involve water sometime in the future, lessening the utilization of regular water for financial or natural reasons and adding to independence.

Rainwater harvesting storage is situated above, beneath, or somewhat covered. Cost and style are essential in concluding what stockpiling is best for you.

Factors like grade, distributed space, and underground topography can likewise be a component.

Above Ground Storage Tank

Over-the-ground storage is an incredible choice for water reaping. It considers many tank types, including polyethylene, blasted steel, wood, and bladder.

These require minimal measures of exhuming, which can decrease costs emphatically.

The most well-known reason over-the-ground tanks are not chosen is style; in any case, they can be taken cover behind trees or put away from home.

Many individuals utilize quality over-the-ground tanks as elements that supplement their scene plan.

Partially Buried Storage Tank

This type is a variety in establishing over-the-ground tanks, where the tank is put somewhat in the ground, usually going a quarter to mostly up the tank.

In-Ground Storage Tank

For the most part, in-ground tanks require a more significant impression. Exhuming expenses can be expanded when rock is experienced. In-ground tanks change their heap bearing limit from riding grass cutters to vehicles to semi-trucks.

Since it permits the capacity to utilize the space, this is an alluring choice for most downpour gatherers.


The reason for the flood pipe is to forestall flooding. Flood pipes are introduced on chilly water stockpiling tanks in lofts, including feed and development tanks.

At the point when a tank spills over, it can frequently be down to the ball valve that necessitates supplanting.

If no other downpipes channel to the water tank's top coincided gulf, there is no requirement for a water tank flood pipe. Erasing or covering a water tank's flood outlet increments the storage limit.


Outlets permit water to stream into and out of elements and limit the rate at which water streams along and out of the framework.

Many plans and varieties include finished pipes, punctured pipes, weirs, openings, vortex control gadgets, and spillways.


A viable rainwater harvesting should incorporate a pump. The siphon ought to be fixed inside your water stockpiling tank.

The pump sends the water from the capacity gadget and coordinates with the filtration framework. For successful outcomes, utilize a top-quality siphon.

However, if the pump gets harmed, supplant it to avoid burdens. Note that fixing your water siphon is a basic errand as it's effectively open.

The water is then siphoned back to the house and integrated with the filtration framework, which covers the home's pipes appropriation.

The water is exposed to three filtration and sterilization stages to guarantee it's 100% safe.

The principal stage includes going through a dregs channel to remove leftover particles.

It then went through a carbon channel to further develop the water taste and keep it new.

The water is then passed through a bright sterilization framework to kill any microbes present in the water. These channels should be supplanted no less than one time each year.

Calculating catchment area and storage capacity

For the considerable scope: You can gather 100,000 liters of water for every 10 millimeters of downpour falling on one hectare of catchment surface.

In light of this, a sensible gauge of the volume of water that could be gathered off the 47-foot by 27-foot model rooftop in an average year is 6,644 gallons.

As a fundamental principle of thumb, each square meter of rooftop space gathers around 1 liter of water for each 1 millimeter of precipitation.

Utilizing the computation of (x) square meters of rooftop space accessible for association with your tank increased by how much rainfall will assist with directing your choice.

To compute how much water can be gathered, duplicate your precipitation (mm) by the rooftop surface region (m2) used to get water.

The subsequent number addresses the number of liters of water you can hope to gather.

Types of rainwater harvesting systems 

Rainwater collection system

Roof-Based Rainwater Harvesting Systems

A rooftop rainwater harvesting system is a method utilized to preserve water.

In this strategy, the water that has fallen on the top of houses or structures is gathered away in underground tanks with the assistance of lines.

This likewise assists us with re-energizing the groundwater levels.

Surface-Based Rainwater Harvesting Systems

The surface runoff rainwater harvesting system is the assortment, treatment, cleansing, and removal of stormwater for reuse. Surface spillover can be utilized for water systems or re-energizing groundwater.

Essentially, the system gathers water, which streams away as surface overflow.

The overflow water is gotten and used to re-energize springs by using the proper methods.

Building and Installing Own Rainwater Harvesting System

According to GRAF, listed below are the step-by-step instructions on how to install a rainwater harvesting system at your home:

  1. Excavate the region for the tank establishment. Observe any rules connected with slants and groundwater levels.

  2. Bring down the tank into the channel, guaranteeing it is adjusted on a level plane.

  3. Cautiously append the tank turret to the highest point of the tank.

  4. Install the filter bundle before interfacing the rooftop downpipes alongside the flood u-twist.

  1. Utilizing rock or comparable, refill the exhumed space in layers of 30cm while raising the water level simultaneously.

  2. Before the refilling is finished, install the arch shaft, which can be acclimated to fit flush with ground level once the opening has been filled.

  3. Interface the underground tank to the house with a line. The control board will oversee this inside the property where the system works.

  4. Install the control board in a nearby region, like the carport or utility room, and interface it with the outer channeling connected to the tank.

  5. Ultimately, guarantee all water pipes have the proper markings to recognize those that are not.

Safety Measures In Collecting Rainwater

The fundamental objective of well-being for the client is excellent water quality. For a capacity tank to keep up with great-quality water, it should not consider light infiltration.

Sunlight entering the tank causes algae growth. Additionally, the tank should be appropriately screened and gotten so no bugs or creatures can enter.

Never drink gathered water that has not been separated. Raindrops get hurtful substances as they tumble from the sky to the tank.

They additionally absorb particles of creature squander on drains and rooftop shingles.

While you can involve separated water for cultivating, finishing, and washing vehicles, the water gathered must go through a disinfecting interaction before it tends to be polished off.

Maintenance Tips for Collecting Rainwater 

Have a decent drain set up to ensure the water can be dependably redirected to the source being referred to.

Aluminum guttering can be extremely useful. Drains should be kept from leaves and pine needles so as not to make tannins or water staining.

All consumable water tanks should have a leaf bushel/sifter where the gulf pipe meets the tank.

There ought to likewise be a removable coupling or an intelligent method for segregating the last PVC fitting/pipe that goes into the tank.

Eliminate this fitting, then, at that point, the leaf bin, clear out any flotsam and jetsam, flush with water, and re-install.

Furthermore, ensure that each capacity tank is secured. Water storage tanks are massive and could cause wounds, assuming they fall on individuals.

When loaded with water, in addition to the fact that they can cause slipping accidents, they are likewise drowning hazards.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The best filtration choices for making water consumable are reverse osmosis and distillation.

Mechanical filtration (i.e., sediment filter) is likewise essential to the progress of water treatment. A rainwater collection system can filter out huge particulate matter, like leaves and twigs.

For your reference, attached below is a video on a DIY rainwater harvesting system:

Sustainability in Rainwater Collection System

Sustainability depends on a simple standard: all that we want for our endurance and prosperity depends, either straightforwardly or by implication, on our shared habitat.

Sustainable water management further develops water quality in the climate and adds to the expanded natural and environmental variety, while water preservation decreases the interest in new water assets.

Gathering and utilizing water can be an extraordinary method for preserving assets. Specific individuals use water for watering plants, cleaning, washing, or drinking.

Notwithstanding, it is critical that the water framework is kept up appropriately and that the water quality is fitting for the expected use.

By using reaped water for non-consumable purposes, such as cultivating, toilet flushing, and cleaning, families can have less water interest and diminish their water bills.

Water is openly accessible and can enhance or supplant the utilization of treated water from utilities.

Water harvesting offers a practical and feasible option in contrast to conventional water supply frameworks.

People, communities, and organizations can save money on water charges and decrease general water utilization by diminishing dependence on civil water supplies.

Water management practices, as well as their subsequent targets, are assorted.

These include driving abundant water away from fields, dialing backwater streams with regular stream beds, giving a security blanket for rising water, and putting away water for the water system.

NOW, why should you invest in a rainwater harvesting system? Rainwater harvesting illustrates an essential component of coordinated water management.

It can assume a crucial part in decreasing strain on open water utilities and foundations while likewise making urban communities stronger with the impacts of environmental change.

Water collection systems are cost-effective, give high-quality water, decrease reliance on wells, and are impressively simple to keep up with if not used for drinking, cooking, or other delicate purposes.

It diminishes the possibility of flooding around structures and the heap of the city's current waste arrangement.

Since water is a free source, it not only lessens the home's water bills but also decreases the carbon impression and makes the home more practical.

So, to answer the question as to why you should invest in a rainwater harvesting system, the answer can be found in the subheading itself: sustainability in rainwater collection.

Conclusion: Collected Rainwater For Daily Use

harvesting rainwater

Rain is the primary way that the water in the skies becomes practical, where it fills our lakes and streams, re-energizes the underground springs, and serves as drinks to plants and animals.

Thus, rainwater harvesting is significant because it diminishes the demand for water while likewise lessening the requirement for imported water.

It advanced both water and energy preservation, as well as working on the quality and amount of groundwater.

Not just that, water harvesting additionally lessens soil disintegration and flood risks by gathering water and diminishing the progression of stormwater to forestall metropolitan flooding.

Most structures that use water collection systems have an underlying catchment region on top of the rooftop, which has a limit on gathering enormous volumes of water in the event of rainstorms.

Gathering and utilizing water can be an incredible method for saving money. A lot of people use water for watering plants, cleaning, washing, or drinking.

Nonetheless, it is critical that the water framework is kept up appropriately and that the water quality is proper for the planned use.

Since water is a free source, it not only decreases the water bills of the home but additionally diminishes the carbon footprint and makes the home more manageable.

Ultimately, rainwater collection is a practical and viable answer for battling water shortage and advancing natural maintainability.

By bridging the force of nature, people can diminish their dependence on customary water sources and limit their ecological effects.


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