History of Pemmican
When the trading system reached the Winnipeg area in Canada, Peter Pond had introduced a vital food to the trade-in 1779. He was inspired by the Chipewyans in the region of Athabasca, Alberta, Canada.
According to history, Metis (mixed American-Indian and Euro-American ancestry) would travel to the southwest prairie part of Canada, slaughter buffalo, and make it as pemmican. Then, they will trade it at the posts of North West Company. The people on the edge of the prairie would consider pemmican an important good in the trade since it could give them nourishment for the whole day.
The trade for pemmican was a major factor in the birth of the Metis community. Multiple packs of pemmican would be traded north and stored at the major fur posts such as in Edmonton House, Fort Alexander, Fort Garry, Norway House, and Cumberland House.The pemmican was very important that Governor Miles Macdonell started the Pemmican War in 1814 with the Metis. He passed the Pemmican Proclamation, which forbids the export of pemmican from the Red River Colony. Many adventurers relied on pemmican. Alexander Mackenzie in 1793, Robert Peary, an explorer in the North Pole from 1886 to 1909, and Ernest Shackleton from 1914 to 1916 in the Antarctic. Meanwhile, during the Second Boer War of Great Britain and the South African Republic from 1899 to 1902, the British troops relied on pemmican. It can last for many days, and the troops can march for 36 hours (3 days) before someone drops from hunger.
Ingredients and Traditional Preparation of PemmicanTraditionally, pemmican is made from moose, buffalo, deer, bison, elk, or whatever meat is available. The meat is cut in thin slices and dried either under the sun's heat or on a low fire until it becomes brittle and hard. In making pemmican, it will take about 2 kilograms of meat. Next, they pound the meat using stones or a big mortar and pestle and turn it into small pieces until it becomes powder-like. The meat is mixed with rendered fat. After that, dried fruits like Saskatoon berries, blueberries, cherries, and cranberries were pounded into the powder and fat. Water is removed from dried fruits. Thus, it has a longer shelf life than fresh fruits. The pemmican mixture is packed in bags for storage which can last for around ten years. The Native Americans store their supplies of pemmican in bags that are made of deerskin or buffalo skin. These bags were adopted by the Europeans, and today it is known as saddlebags or parfleche by the French.
Benefits of PemmicanAdventurers from past centuries have used pemmican as their food due to its unique nature. Today, it is a great option for survivalist enthusiasts because of its various benefits. First, it has a long shelf life, and it can provide a whole meal for an individual. It does not need any refrigeration since the food does not hold moisture. It is a good snack for all outdoor activities such as climbing, biking, backpacking trips, road tripping, kayaking, etc. Second, during adventures or emergencies, pemmican can minimize waste and maximize your resources. It uses both fat and lean meat of an animal, and it can create little waste, which is essential during a survival situation. Third, it is easy to carry and lightweight. You can store it in tight containers or Ziplock bags and put it in your luggage. The military in the field can just put the pemmican in their pockets and eat it whenever they are hungry. Fourth, it contains fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals that our body needs to function. 22 ounces of pemmican contains the following nutritional benefits:
- 293 calories
- 26 grams of fat (Saturated fat is 13 grams and trans fat is 2 grams)
- Sodium 285 mg
- Carbohydrates 1 gram
- Protein 15 grams
Shelf life of pemmicanThere are various opinions regarding the shelf life of the pemmican. Some say that it can last only a month, while others believe it can last for many months, even up to years. It depends on the humidity and temperature of the environment. The quality of ingredients plus the storage condition will also determine its shelf life. Ingredients must be fresh (like the meat and the fat), plus the fruits must be dried for longer shelf life. In addition, the storage temperatures must be cooler to protect the food. To do this, you can store it in the freezer or a glass jar and put it in a dark, cool place to make it last for longer years. For even longer storage, you can use raisins instead of fat in the traditional pemmican recipe.
How to Make a PemmicanPemmicans are now available in stores offering MRE (meals ready to eat) or survival items. It is available in bars, cans, or pails. There are also items available in different sizes and flavors. However, it is still best to learn how to make one ready in an emergency or crisis. You can make your pemmican inside your home today and prepare it according to your taste. It can save you time, especially if you're too busy to prepare your food, and it can keep you going for hours. Here's how to do it:
- One kilogram of meat – You can use the meat of buffalo, deer, elk, moose, or beef. Choose lean parts of the meat like the thigh.
- 500 grams of fat – Beef Suet or lard
- Seven hundred grams of dried fruits – Dried fruits like blueberries, cherries, or Saskatoon berries.
- Extras- You can also add chopped nuts, raisins, peanut butter, maple syrup, or honey. Some would add sugar and chocolate to their pemmican.
Cut the meatThe first thing to do is to cut off the fat from the meat. Slice the meat thinly using a sharp knife and place it on a tray or rack. After that, place the tray or rack under the heat of the sun or at low fire. You can use an oven or stove to heat the meat. This will take you all day to make it brittle. Make sure that the meat is dry and it cracks when you bend it.
Grind up the MeatNext, put the dried meat in a food processor. Grind it until it becomes powdery. If you don't have a food processor, you can use the blender. To do this, mince the meat first, cut it into very small pieces, put it in the blender. Make sure that you turn it into powder form.
Render the FatThe next step is to heat the fat. You can do this with an oven, stove, or crackpot for several hours on a low heat setting. Make sure that you stir the fat occasionally until it stops bubbling. The next step is to pour the fat through a mesh strainer or cheesecloth and filter the liquid fat from the crispy bits.
Mix the fruits, meat, and other ingredientsThe next thing to do is to mix all other ingredients in a large bowl. Put the fruits and extras such as nuts, raisins, peanut butter, honey, or sugar. Then, add one part of fat into two parts of meat and mix it. Do this until you finish mixing all the ingredients. Mix it thoroughly. After mixing the ingredients, spread it in a casserole dish and form it into squares, little balls, or bars. Let it stay for a few minutes until it becomes hard. You can store it in airtight containers to make it last longer. Make sure to keep the pemmican in a cool, dark, dry place to help protect it.
Tips for Making a PemmicanMaking pemmican is easy as one-two-three! But here are some tips especially for first-timers so that you can create the best pemmican:
- First, make sure that you get the fat for your pemmican outside the marrow or muscle of the meat. Ask your butcher for this.
- Choose the leanest part of the muscle meat for your ingredient.
- Make an equal ratio of the weight of the meat, dried fruits, and fat, and not by the volume. It is usually 1:1:1. With this tip, you will surely have better-tasting results.
- As long as the fat has been rendered properly, there is no need to refrigerate the pemmican. You can opt to use an airtight container (glass jars, pottery containers, or Tupperware) to store it. In addition, vacuum-packed or plastic wrappers can also make pemmicans last a long time. These containers are insect and rodent-proof too.
- You can choose an alternative ingredient for fat. For example, you can use peanut butter as a replacement for rendered fat. In addition, for vegetarians, a leather fruit or vegetable will be a nice replacement for meat, although this will not give you like high fat and calories as the meat-fat version.